Deploying battery swap stations for shared electric vehicles using trajectory data

Xiong Yang, Chunfu Shao, Chengxiang Zhuge, Mingdong Sun, Pinxi Wang, Shiqi Wang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposed a novel Station-to-Point (S2P) Battery Swap Mode for Shared Electric Vehicles (SEVs), under which Battery Swap Stations (BSSs) have dedicated delivery vehicles transporting new/used batteries between BSSs and Battery Swapping Demand (BSD) points. We further developed a data-driven BSS location optimization model and day-to-day operation strategy, using a one-month GPS trajectory dataset containing 514 actual SEVs in Beijing. We set up 53 scenarios to test the model. In the baseline scenario, we found that the SEV fleet needed 15 BSSs, and each SEV, on average, needed 1.202 batteries and 0.031 delivery vehicles with the centralized management strategy applied. Through “what-if” scenarios, we found that the key parameters Q (the coverage rate of BSD points), R (the service radius of a BSS), and AADT (the acceptable average delay time) were influential to the outputs of interest.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102943
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Battery swap station
  • Car-sharing
  • Data-driven approach
  • Infrastructure deployment
  • Shared electric vehicles
  • Trajectory data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation
  • General Environmental Science


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