Demand as frequency controlled reserve

Zhao Xu, Jacob Østergaard, Mikael Togeby

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

208 Citations (Scopus)


Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates use of the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR), which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR technology have been developed and analyzed, based on which simulation models have been built using the DIgSILENT Power Factory. The simulation studies of different scenarios confirm that the DFR can provide reliable performance of frequency control. Furthermore, relevant issues regarding implementing DFR in reality have been discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5608535
Pages (from-to)1062-1071
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2011


  • Demand side
  • frequency control
  • power system modeling and simulation
  • wind power

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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