Accurate estimates of probable maximum simultaneous demand are essential for sizing the water supply plants and piping systems of high rise residential buildings cost-effectively and eco-efficiently. This paper surveyed the water usage patterns through face-to-face interviews and simple on site measurements from some typical high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong and investigated the probable maximum demands of domestic appliances in terms of fixture units determined at an allowable failure rate of 1% of the peak hourly demands. The fixture units of a WC, a washbasin, a shower, a kitchen sink and a 5 L washing machine were quantified and compared with the current design values. The results showed that the latter must be reviewed. This study hence provides a useful source of reference for the optimisation of water supply and piping systems in high-rise residential buildings.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||HKIE Transactions Hong Kong Institution of Engineers|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2008|
- Demand Units
- Residential Buildings
- Water Supply
ASJC Scopus subject areas