Demand Analysis for Residential Water Supply Systems in Hong Kong

Ling Tim Wong, W. Y. Liu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Accurate estimates of probable maximum simultaneous demand are essential for sizing the water supply plants and piping systems of high rise residential buildings cost-effectively and eco-efficiently. This paper surveyed the water usage patterns through face-to-face interviews and simple on site measurements from some typical high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong and investigated the probable maximum demands of domestic appliances in terms of fixture units determined at an allowable failure rate of 1% of the peak hourly demands. The fixture units of a WC, a washbasin, a shower, a kitchen sink and a 5 L washing machine were quantified and compared with the current design values. The results showed that the latter must be reviewed. This study hence provides a useful source of reference for the optimisation of water supply and piping systems in high-rise residential buildings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-28
Number of pages5
JournalHKIE Transactions Hong Kong Institution of Engineers
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2008


  • Demand Units
  • High-rise
  • Residential Buildings
  • Water Supply

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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