Defining virtual reality enabled learning

Horace Ho Shing Ip, Chen Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Virtual reality (VR), as a set of human-computer interaction (HCI) technologies, allows the creation of computer-generated virtual environments, in which users are free to interact with the environments, virtual objects, agents, or even other users. Previous empirical studies have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of using VR for education. However, the ambiguity in the definition has caused both theoretical and practical obstacles in this research area. This article aims to address this issue by considering the interdisciplinary nature of this research area. Specifically, the term VR-enabled learning is coined here, and the definition of VR-enabled learning is decomposed into five dimensions of concerns, namely immersion, presence, pedagogy, intended learning outcomes, and learner specifics. These five dimensions of concerns should not only help to address the ambiguity in the definition but also serve as a framework to guide the planning and practising of future research studies in VR-enabled learning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-306
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Innovation and Learning
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • immersion
  • learner specifics
  • learning outcome
  • pedagogy
  • presence
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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