Deciphering the optimal exergy field in closed-wet cooling towers using Bi-level reduced-order models

Jinghui Qu, Mingjian Li, Chang He, Bing Jian Zhang, Qing Lin Chen, Jingzheng Ren

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This paper introduces a bi-level reduced-order models (ROMs) approach for quickly deciphering the optimal exergy fields in closed wet cooling towers (CWCTs) with consideration of weather variations. First, an efficient sampling method based on stochastic reduced-order model is performed for the approximation of the multivariate probability distributions by generating a finite set of samples. The uncertainty associated with input variables is propagated via multi-sample CFD simulations of the CWCT model for each of the samples. The results of the state and output variables stored in the CFD solutions are used to construct the data-driven and physics-based ROMs by combining principal component analysis and artificial neural network methods. The constructed data-driven ROM is embedded in a sampling-based stochastic optimization model that seeks the maximization of the expected exergy efficiency ratio. The physics-based ROM is used to visualize the optimal field profiles of the thermal-, mechanical-, and chemical-exergy fluxes. Finally, the results of a case study demonstrate that the main strengths of the proposed approach is to simultaneously obtain the optimal exergy efficiency ratios and the exergy field profiles of the CWCT system in a computationally efficient manner.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121766
Number of pages12
Issue numberPart A
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Closed wet cooling towers
  • Exergy efficiency ratio
  • Exergy fields
  • Reduced-order models
  • Stochastic optimization
  • Stochastic reduced-order model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Pollution
  • General Energy
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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