Dark current, breakdown, and magnetic field effects in a multicell, 805 MHz cavity

J. Norem, V. Wu, A. Moretti, M. Popovic, Z. Qian, L. Ducas, Y. Torun, N. Solomey

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)


We present measurements of dark currents and x rays in a six cell 805 MHz cavity, taken as part of an rf development program for muon cooling, which requires high power, high stored energy, low frequency cavities operating in a strong magnetic field. We have done the first systematic study of the behavior of high power rf in a strong (2.5-4 T) magnetic field. Our measurements extend over a very large dynamic range in current and provide good fits to the Fowler-Nordheim field emission model assuming mechanical structures produce field enhancements at the surface. The locally enhanced field intensities we derive at the tips of these emitters are very large, (∼10 GV/m), and should produce tensile stresses comparable to the tensile strength of the copper cavity walls and should be capable of causing breakdown events. We also compare our data with estimates of tensile stresses from a variety of accelerating structures. Preliminary studies of the internal surface of the cavity and window are presented, which show splashes of copper with many sharp cone shaped protrusions and wires which can explain the experimentally measured field enhancements. We discuss a "cold copper" breakdown mechanism and briefly review alternatives. We also discuss a number of effects due to the 2.5 T solenoidal fields on the cavity such as altered field emission due to mechanical deformation of emitters, and dark current ring beams, which are produced from the irises by E × B drifts during the non-relativistic part of the acceleration process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-31
Number of pages21
JournalPhysical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • Surfaces and Interfaces


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