Cyclohexanedione as the negative electrode reaction for aqueous organic redox flow batteries

P. Leung, T. Martin, M. Liras, A. M. Berenguer, R. Marcilla, A. Shah, Liang An, M. A. Anderson, J. Palma

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Electrochemical characterization indicates that the redox reaction of cyclohexanedione is a proton-coupled electron transfer process with quasi-reversible behavior in acidic media (pH < 3). Among three isomeric compounds (1,2-, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexanedione), the reduction of 1,3-cyclohexanedione exhibits the most negative electrode potential (c.a. −0.6 V vs. Ag|AgCl (c.a. −0.4 V vs. NHE)) as well as the widest pH operating range (pH 1–5) for relatively reversible reactions. The resulting electrode potential is the most negative of those to have been reported in neutral/acidic electrolytes. 1,3-cyclohexanedione is subsequently used as the active species in the negative electrode of a parallel plate flow cell, which is charge-discharge cycled at 3.4 mA cm−2for 100 cycles, yielding half-cell coulombic efficiencies of c.a. 99%. The organic molecules derived from this group are observed to have high solubilities (>2 M) and exhibit reduction process with up to 4 electrons transferred.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)318-326
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Aqueous flow batteries
  • Cyclohexanedione
  • Organic flow batteries
  • Redox flow batteries
  • Soluble

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Energy
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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