Cultural distortion risks at heritage sites: Scale development and validation

Shu-Ning Zhang, Wen-Qi Ruan, Yong-Quan Li, Honggen Xiao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Cultural risk measurement is an urgent theoretical and practical issue related to cultural sustainability of heritage sites. This research conducted rigorous scale development of cultural distortion risk at heritage sites (CDRHS) with four stages. The results further emphasize the risk prediction direction of cultural crisis. Validated with three dimensions and 12 items, the CDRHS scale has high-level and convergent, construct, and discriminant validity. The scale is confirmed with three constructs: cultural ontology distortion risks, cultural representation distortion risks, and cultural constructive distortion risks. Moreover, the ‘risk-trust-intention’ negative influence framework indicates that CDRHS has a significant negative effect on tourists' behavioral intention. This research highlights the structural dimension of the CDRHS scale, presenting a new measurement tool and methodological contribution to cultural sustainability of heritage sites. It provides indicators and diagnostic tools for timely prediction and supervision of cultural crises.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104860
JournalTourism Management
Early online dateDec 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Dec 2023


  • Crisis
  • Cultural distortion risk
  • Cultural sustainability
  • Heritage site
  • Scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Strategy and Management


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