Cultural differences and job performance in container shipping: A social exchange theory perspective

Chi-Chang Lin, Chin-shan Lu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Drawing on the social exchange theory, the objective of this study is to examine employees’ perceptions of cultural differences of container shipping companies and its impact on job performance. We also examined the role of the leadership in the relationship between cultural differences and job performance. Survey data collected from 740 employees of container shipping companies in six different countries including UK, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Mainland China and Taiwan. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted. Results indicated that transformational leadership and national cultural differences with respect to uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and long-term orientation positively influenced job performance, whereas national cultural differences with respect to power distance and masculinity negatively influence job performance. Specifically, this research finds that transformational leadership plays a moderating role on the relationships between national culture differences and job performance. Implications for theory and practices were discussed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMaritime Policy and Management
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 9 Aug 2021


  • Container shipping; National culture; Culture difference; Transformational leadership; Job performance; Social exchange theory

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