Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale–International in Filipino community-dwelling older adults

Donald S. Lipardo, Angela Y.M. Leung, Cherry May A. Gabuyo, Catherine Joy T. Escuadra, Patrick Ansel Leung, Anne Marie C. Aseron, Kathlene Anne V. Hernandez, Joselito B. Diaz, William W.N. Tsang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: The Falls Efficacy Scale–International is universally used in assessing the level of concern about falling in older adults. The objectives of this study were to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation and to establish psychometric properties of Falls Efficacy Scale–International in Filipino (FES-I F). Methods: The standardized 10-step translation protocol of the Prevention of Falls Network Europe was followed. Community-dwelling older adults aged 60 or above (N = 211) from Manila, Philippines were recruited. The internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the translated tool was assessed. Convergent validity was compared with fall-related factors. The receiver operating characteristics were used to determine the cutoff score. Results: The FES-I F has high internal consistency (α = 0.91) and good test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.86). Overall scores were significantly higher among those with subjective report of fear of falling (p < 0.001), lower timed up and go test scores (p = 0.014), slower gait speed (p = 0.003), and lower perceived well-being scores (p = 0.003) indicating acceptable convergent validity. The cutoff score of FES-I F was 22 points. Conclusions: The FES-I F has high internal reliability and acceptable validity, and can be a practical tool to measure the concern about falling in Filipino older adults. Future research is necessary to establish its utilization as an outcome measure in intervention studies.Implications for rehabilitation The psychometric properties of the Filipino version of the Falls Efficacy Scale–International were good when assessed in older adults living in the community. The cutoff score to demarcate those with fear of falling from those without is 22 points. Falls Efficacy Scale–International in Filipino is recommended for the assessment of fear of falling for research and clinical purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1292-1298
Number of pages7
JournalDisability and Rehabilitation
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2020


  • community-dwelling
  • Fear of falling
  • FES-I
  • Filipino
  • older adults
  • translation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation

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