Correction of GPR wave velocity at different oblique angles between traverses and alignment of line objects in a common offset antenna setting

Wai Lok Lai, Thomas Kind, Janet Fung Chu Sham, Herbert Wiggenhauser

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Estimation of ground penetrating radar's wave velocity in materials is a critical step to accurately estimate depth of embedded line objects in concrete structures, and wetness of material. Errors of velocity are defined as the deviations between the velocities obtained in various oblique angles and those obtained in the traverse normal to the object orientation in a common offset antenna setting. In this paper, we quantified and corrected the errors of such estimation. GPR traverses were designed to travel in various oblique angles θ (90°, 75°, 60° and 45°) relative to the steel bars at 5 cover depths (55 mm, 85 mm, 115 mm, 145 mm and 175 mm). GPR wave velocity at any position within the lateral detection range of steel bars was measured with simple trigonometry in a semi-automated in-house program. It was found that reduction of oblique angles (i.e. θ<90°) causes flatter hyperbolic reflections and the associated errors of velocity can be as much as 30% in the case of an oblique angle 45° before correction. Such errors were corrected after re-scaling the horizontal travel distance with a multiplication factor of sin θ.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-43
Number of pages8
JournalNDT and E International
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016


  • Ground penetrating radar
  • Hyperbola
  • Oblique angles
  • Velocity error

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

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