Copepods as References Species in Estuarine and Marine Waters

Wing Hin Kevin Patrick Kwok, Sami Souissi, Gael Dur, Eun Ji Won, Jae Seong Lee

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingChapter in an edited book (as author)Academic researchpeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


Copepods are a class of small crustaceans that are widespread and naturally abundant in all aquatic ecosystems as a key link between primary producers and higher predators. They have 13 distinct life stages (i.e., egg, six naupliar stages, five copepodite stages, adult), making development easy to trace, and many species are sexually dimorphic. These life-history traits and its importance in the aquatic food web make copepods a suitable candidate as reference organisms for ecotoxicology. Copepods are used particularly for full life-cycle toxicity evaluation. This potential is recognized by researchers, government agencies, and international bodies. This chapter provides a summary of the current state of science in copepod toxicity testing, published protocols of copepod tests, and identifies key research area for further development of copepod testing.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAquatic Ecotoxicology
Subtitle of host publicationAdvancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages28
ISBN (Electronic)9780128011768
ISBN (Print)9780128009499
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2015


  • Genetics
  • Life-cycle toxicity
  • Population effect
  • Toxicity testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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