Coopetition in development: A Chinese hermeneutics

Shaobing ZHUO , Qingyun Pang, Zixi Zhao, Honggen Xiao, Ting Jiang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


This paper adopts Ming and Shi (“名”与“实”, or naming/saying vs gaining/doing) as critical Chinese hermeneutics to understand stakeholder coopetition in destination development. Through an ethnographic case study in an ancient town in China, three internal coopetitions are identified: Ming overriding Shi (以名乱实), Shi overriding Ming (以实乱名), and one Ming overriding another Ming (以名乱名). Three external coopetitions are also discussed: legitimating Ming with external Shi (以实正名), enhancing Ming in compliance with external Shi (名副其实), and replacing old Ming with new Ming (以新名替旧名). These Chinese hermeneutic strategies are contrasted with Western interpretations to shed light on intercultural understandings of destination stakeholder coopetitions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103801
JournalAnnals of Tourism Research
Early online date22 Jun 2024
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2024


  • Stakeholder coopetition
  • Destination development
  • Chinese philosophy
  • Ming
  • Shi


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