Continuous monitoring of sonomyography, electromyography and torque generated by normal upper arm muscles during isometric contraction: Sonomyography assessment for arm muscles

Jun Shi, Yongping Zheng, Qing Hua Huang, Xin Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the continuous signals about the thickness and pennation angle changes of muscles detected in real-time from ultrasound images, named as sonomyography (SMG), to characterize muscles under isometric contraction, along with synchronized surface electromyography (EMG) and generated torque signals. The right biceps brachii muscles of seven normal young adult subjects were tested. We observed that exponential functions could well represent the relationships between the normalized EMG root-mean-square (RMS) and the torque, the RMS and the muscle deformation SMG, and the RMS and the pennation angle SMG for the data of the contraction phase, with exponent coefficients of 0.0341 ± 0.0148 (Mean ± SD), 0.0619 ± 0.0273, and 0.0266 ± 0.0076, respectively. In addition, the preliminary results also demonstrated linear relationships between the normalized torque and the muscle deformation as well as the pennation angle with the ratios of 9.79 ± 3.01 and 2.02 ± 0.53, respectively. The overall mean R2for the regressions was approximately 0.9 and the overall mean relative root mean square error (RRMSE) smaller than 15%. The potential values of SMG together with EMG to provide a more comprehensive assessment for the muscle functions should be further investigated with more subjects and more muscle groups.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1191-1198
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2008


  • Electromyography
  • EMG
  • Muscle
  • Pennation angle
  • SMG
  • Sonomyography
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering

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