"Conflicting" motion cues to the visual and vestibular self-motion systems around 0.06 Hz evoke simulator sickness

Henry Been Lirn Duh, Donald E. Parker, James O. Philips, Thomas A. Furness

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)


The basic question this research addressed was, how does simulator sickness vary with simulated motion frequency? Participants were 11 women and 19 men, 20 to 63 years of age. A visual self-motion frequency response curve was determined using a Chattecx posture platform with a VR4 head-mounted display (HMD) or a back-projected dome. That curve and one for vestibular self-motion specify a frequency range in which vestibular and visual motion stimuli could produce conflicting self-motion cues. Using a rotating chair and the HMD, a third experiment supported (p < .01) the hypothesis that conflicting cues at the frequency of maximum "crossover" between the curves (about 0.06 Hz) would be more likely to evoke simulator sickness than would conflicting cues at a higher frequency. Actual or potential applications of this work include a preliminary design guidance curve that indicates the frequency range of simulated motion that is likely to evoke simulator or virtual reality sickness; for simulators intended to operate in this frequency range, appropriate simulator sickness interventions should be considered during the design process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)142-153
Number of pages12
JournalHuman Factors
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Applied Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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