Concomitant ingestion of lactic acid bacteria and black tea synergistically enhances flavonoid bioavailability and attenuates D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice via modulating glutathione antioxidant system

Danyue Zhao, Nagendra P. Shah

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Black tea (BT) has been positively linked to improved redox status, while its efficacy is limited due to the low bioavailability of BT flavonoids. In addition to the direct antioxidant activity, flavonoids regulate redox balance via inducing endogenous antioxidants, particularly glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent antioxidant enzymes. This work first examined the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and BT alone or in combination on flavonoid bioavailability and metabolism; next, the effect of LAB-fermented BT diet in attenuating oxidative stress in mice and the underlying mechanisms were studied. Phenolic profiles of plasma, urine and feces from healthy mice consuming plain yogurt, BT milk (BTM) or BT yogurt (BTY) were acquired using LC–MS/MS. Plasma antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation level, content of nonprotein thiols and expression of GSH-related antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 were examined in D-galactose-treated mice. Total flavonoid content in plasma following a single dose of BTY attained 0.657 μmol/l, increased by 50% compared with the BTM group. Increased excretion of phenolic metabolite and hippuric acid in urine and feces indicated enhanced metabolism of flavonoids in BTY-fed mice. In the second study, 8-week concomitant LAB-BT treatment of oxidatively stressed mice effectively restored plasma antioxidant capacity and GSH levels, and mitigated lipid peroxidation, which were associated with significant induction of GSH-dependent antioxidant enzymes and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Our results demonstrated the effect of LAB fermentation in enhancing BT flavonoid bioavailability in vivo. The synergistic antioxidant efficacy of LAB-BT diet implied its therapeutic potential in enhancing antioxidant defenses and protecting organisms from oxidative damage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-124
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Black tea
  • Flavonoid bioavailability
  • Glutathione
  • LAB fermentation
  • Nrf2
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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