Computer simulation of material flow in warm-forming bimetallic components

T. F. Kong, Luen Chow Chan, T. C. Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationConference articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Bimetallic components take advantage of two different metals or alloys so that their applicable performance, weight and cost can be optimized. However, since each material has its own flow properties and mechanical behaviour, heterogeneous material flows will occur during the bimetal forming process. Those controls of process parameters are relatively more complicated than forming single metals. Most previous studies in bimetal forming have focused mainly on cold forming, and less relevant information about the warm forming has been provided. Indeed, changes of temperature and heat transfer between two materials are the significant factors which can highly influence the success of the process. Therefore, this paper presents a study of the material flow in warm-forming bimetallic components using finite-element (FE) simulation in order to determine the suitable process parameters for attaining the complete die filling. A watch-case-like component made of stainless steel (AISI-316L) and aluminium alloy (AL-6063) was used as the example. The warm-forming processes were simulated with the punch speeds V of 40, 80, and 120 mm/s and the initial temperatures of the stainless steel TiSSof 625, 675, 725, 775, 825, 875, 925, 975, and 1025 °C. The results showed that the AL-6063 flowed faster than the AISI-316L and so the incomplete die filling was only found in the AISI-316L region. A higher TiSSwas recommended to avoid incomplete die filling. The reduction of V is also suggested because this can save the forming energy and prevent the damage of tooling. Eventually, with the experimental verification, the results from the simulation were in agreement with those of the experiments. On the basis of the results of this study, engineers can gain a better understanding of the material flow in warm-forming bimetallic components, and be able to determine more efficiently the punch speed and initial material temperature for the process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1029-1034
Number of pages6
JournalAIP Conference Proceedings
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2007
EventMATERIALS PROCESSING AND DESIGN; Modeling, Simulation and Applications - NUMIFORM '07: 9th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes - Porto, Portugal
Duration: 17 Jun 200721 Jun 2007


  • Bimetallic component
  • FE simulation
  • Initial temperature
  • Material flow
  • Punch speed
  • Warm forming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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