Computational study and experimental comparison of the in-flight particle behavior for an external injection plasma spray process

K. Remesh, Ching Man Yu, H.W. Ng, C.C. Berndt

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis using Fluent V5.4 was conducted on the in-flight particle behavior during the plasma spraying process with external injection. The spray process was modeled as a steady jet issuing from the torch nozzle via the heating of the arc gas by an electric arc within the nozzle. The stochastic discrete model was used for the particle distribution. The particle temperature, velocity, and size inside the plasma plume at a specified standoff distance have been investigated. The results show that carrier gas flow rate variation from 2 standard liters per minute (slm) to 4.0 slm can increase the centerline particle mean temperature and mean velocity by 10% and 16%, respectively, at the specified standoff distance. A further increase of the carrier gas flow rate to 6 slm did not change the particle temperature, but the particle velocity was decreased by 20%. It was also found that an increase in the total arc gas flow rate from 52 slm to 61 slm, with all other process parameters unchanged, resulted in a 17% higher particle velocity, but 6% lower particle temperature. Some of these computational findings were experimentally confirmed by Kucuk et al. For a given process parameter setting, the kinetic and thermal energy extracted by the particles reached a maximum for carrier gas flow rate of about 3.5-4.0 slm.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)508-522
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Atmospheric plasma spray
  • CFD modeling
  • In-flight diagnostics
  • Particle behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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