Acylcarnitines are exerting a variety of biological functions depending on the differences in lengths, saturation levels, and conjugation groups, which to a great extent contribute to the challenges of acylcarnitines quantifications due to various kinds of isomers. Here, we describe a novel method by using high-resolution parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Both reversed-phase and normal-phase column were used in order to get accurate, reliable, widespread quantification of acylcarnitines, and without tedious sample preparation procedure. The method provided the most comprehensive acylcarnitine profile with high-resolution MS and MS/MS confirmation to date. A total of 117 acylcarnitines were detected from plasma and urine samples. The application of targeted profiling of acylcarnitines in db/m+ control and db/db diabetic mice indicated incomplete amino acid and fatty acid oxidation on diabetic mice. Interestingly, the reduction of medium odd-numbered chain acylcarnitines in urine samples was first observed between db/m+ and db/db mice. The high-resolution PRM method makes it possible to monitor the widespread metabolic changes of the acylcarnitines in response to stimuli. Besides, the accurate MS and MS/MS spectra data of the 117 acylcarnitines could be used as mass spectrometric resources for the identification of acylcarnitines.