Comparison between blended mode and fumigation mode on combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ternary fuel (diesel-biodiesel-ethanol) based on engine speed

Meisam Ahmadi Ghadikolaei, Chun Shun Cheung, Ka Fu Yung (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


According to the literature, there is in lack of a comprehensive study to compare the combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine using diesel, biodiesel and ethanol fuels (DBE) in the blended mode and fumigation mode under various engine speeds. This study was conducted to fill this knowledge gap by comparing the effect of blended, fumigation and combined fumigation + blended (F + B) modes on the combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine under a constant engine load (50% of full torque) with five engine speeds ranging from 1400 rpm to 2200 rpm. A constant overall fuel composition of 80% diesel, 5% biodiesel and 15% ethanol, by volume % (D80B5E15), was utilized to provide the same fuel for comparing the three fueling modes. According to the average results of five engine speeds, the blended mode has higher peak heat release rate (HRR), ignition delay (ID), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific nitrogen monoxide (BSNO) and brake specific nitrogen oxides (BSNOX), but lower duration of combustion (DOC), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake specific carbon dioxide (BSCO2), brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbon (BSHC), brake specific nitrogen dioxide (BSNO2), brake specific particulate matter (BSPM), total number concentration (TNC) and geometric mean diameter (GMD), and similar peak in-cylinder pressure compared to the fumigation mode. In addition, for almost all the parameters, results obtained in the F + B mode are in between those of the blended and fumigation modes. In regard to the effect of engine speed, the results reveal that the increase in engine speed causes reduction in peak in-cylinder pressure, BTE, BSHC, BSNOX, BSNO and BSNO2, but increase in peak HRR, ID, DOC, BSFC, BSCO2, BSPM and TNC, and similar BSCO and GMD for almost all the tested fueling modes. It can be inferred that the blended mode is the suitable fueling mode, compared with the fumigation mode, under the operating conditions investigated in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1233-1250
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of the Energy Institute
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019


  • DBE blend
  • Diesel engine speed
  • Dual-fuel operation
  • Emissions
  • Fumigation mode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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