Comparing Constraints to Cruising Between Cruisers and Non-Cruisers: A Test of the Constraint-Effects-Mitigation Model

Kam Hung, James F. Petrick

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


This study empirically tested the constraint-effects-mitigation model (Hubbard & Mannell, 2001) across cruiser and non-cruiser groups to understand constraints to cruising. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to develop appropriate measurement scales and to test the constraint model. The model was found to have an acceptable fit to the data, which provided evidence for validating the constraint-effects-mitigation model. While the factor structure of the constraint-effects-mitigation model was found to be similar, the mean values of all measurement items and factors and some regression paths were found to be different across the two groups. More specifically, cruisers had fewer constraints to cruising, higher travel motivations and intention, and were more likely to negotiate their constraints to travel. Based on the study results, both theoretical and practical implications were recommended. It is suggested that further investigation is needed to validate the model in other study contexts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)242-262
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Travel and Tourism Marketing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2012


  • constraint negotiation
  • Constraints
  • cruising
  • motivations
  • travel intention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Marketing

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