Comparative life cycle assessment of warm mix technologies in asphalt rubber pavements with uncertainty analysis

Ruijun Cao, Zhen Leng, Huayuang Yu, Shu Chien Hsu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Asphalt rubber (AR) mixture has received growing attention in the past years because of its various advantages, such as potential energy recovery, excellent durability and lower tyre-road noise. However, its high construction temperature would result in increased energy consumption. As one of the solutions, warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies can reduce the construction temperature with the assistance of various WMA additives, while the long-term environmental advantages still need to be explored. In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework incorporated with uncertainty analysis was built to identify the long-term energy-saving role of WMA technologies in AR pavement, and quantify the life cycle energy consumption of warm AR pavements built with three typical warm additives: organic wax, surfactant additive, and zeolite. The four uncertainty categories: material energy consumption, equipment energy consumption, mixing temperature reduction, and material transportation distance, were quantified and propagated through the Monte Carlo simulation. The results of this study showed a visible energy reduction due to usage of the WMA technologies during the material production stage. The importance of pavement roughness performance in the usage-stage energy contribution was signified, as the energy reduction benefits during the material production stage became insignificant when the usage stage was involved. In addition, by incorporating uncertainty analysis, more comprehensive information was provided for decision-making.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-144
Number of pages8
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019


  • Asphalt rubber
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Uncertainty analysis
  • Warm mix technologies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Economics and Econometrics


Dive into the research topics of 'Comparative life cycle assessment of warm mix technologies in asphalt rubber pavements with uncertainty analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this