Combined space cooling and water heating system for Hong Kong residences

Hua Chen, Wai Ling Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


The combined space cooling and hot water preheating system that utilizes the rejected condenser heat is considered one of the most cost effective energy conservation measures. However, simultaneous consumption characteristics are absent in public domain. Questionnaire surveys have been conducted to obtain the relevant information from 126 households residing in high-rise public rental residential buildings in Hong Kong, achieving a confidence level of 95%. The candidate households were selected by a convenience sampling approach, and the questionnaire was constructed using either forced-choice format or in numeric response format. The data obtained were verified by correlation analysis. Data collected includes the occupancy pattern, the installed air-conditioner and water heater characteristics, and the utilization pattern of air-conditioning and hot water. Based upon the collected data and site measurements, hourly, daily and monthly heat recovery and hot water heating demand profiles were established, as well as the correlation between tap water and outdoor air temperatures. The combined profiles enable the evaluation of the feasible use of the combined system, and for future sizing of hot water storage tanks. The potential energy and fuel cost saving associated with the use of the proposed combined system for typical public rental housing in Hong Kong was estimated to be 50%.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-250
Number of pages8
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2010


  • Activity patterns
  • Energy use
  • Hot water
  • Questionnaire survey
  • Space cooling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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