Combined effects of nonylphenol and bisphenol a on the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1

Weidong Gan, Ming Zhou, Xiang Zou, Xiaodong Han, Dongmei Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The xenoestrogens nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are regarded as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which have widespread occurrence in our daily life. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze the combined effects of NP and BPA on the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 using two mathematical models based on the Loewe additivity (LA) theory and the Bliss independence (BI) theory. RWPE-1 cells were treated with NP (0.01–100 μM) and BPA (1–5000 μM) in either a single or a combined format. A cell viability assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate assay were employed as endpoints. As predicted by the two models and based on the cell viability assay, significant synergism between NP and BPA were observed. However, based on the LDH assay, the trends were reversed. Given that environmental contaminants are frequently encountered simultaneously, these data indicated that there were potential interactions between NP and BPA, and the combined effects of the chemical mixture might be stronger than the additive values of individual chemicals combined, which should be taken into consideration for the risk assessment of EDCs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4141-4155
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Bisphenol A (BPA)
  • Bliss independence (BI) model
  • Combined effect
  • Loewe additivity (LA) model
  • Nonylphenol (NP)
  • RWPE-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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