Color-Shift Keying-How Its Largest Obtainable Minimum Distance Depends on Its Preset Operating Chromaticity and Constellation Size

Amena Ejaz Aziz, Kainam Thomas Wong, Jung Chieh Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Color-shift keying (CSK) is a type of visible light wireless communication, where a visible color is preset and is to appear constant during the human vision's 'critical flicker fusion threshold' and 'critical color fusion threshold.' This paper is first in the open literature to systematically investigate how CSK's largest achievable 'minimum distance' (dmin) would vary with the preset chromaticity and with the constellation size (M). This paper discovers this elegant approximation: The best dmin≈1.921-0.5985-2.736-0.645(x2+ y2)0.7802(2-0.436, where (x, y) refers to the preset chromaticity's displacement (in a two-dimensional space) from the case of all LEDs emitting with an equal intensity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7898486
Pages (from-to)2724-2733
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • Colorimetry
  • intensity modulation
  • light emitting diodes
  • optical communication
  • visible light communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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