Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions - Part II: Parametric study and proposed design equations

A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, Ben Young

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


A parametric study of cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling was undertaken using finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes and cross-section sizes on the web crippling strengths of channel sections subjected to web crippling under both interior-two-flange (ITF) and end-two-flange (ETF) loading conditions. In both loading conditions, the hole was centred beneath the bearing plate. It was demonstrated that the main factors influencing the web crippling strength are the ratio of the hole depth to the flat depth of the web, and the ratio of the length of bearing plates to the flat depth of the web. In this paper, design recommendations in the form of web crippling strength reduction factors are proposed, that are conservative to both the experimental and finite element results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-87
Number of pages9
JournalThin-Walled Structures
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Channel section
  • Cold-formed steel
  • Design recommendations
  • Finite element analysis
  • Reduction factor
  • Web crippling
  • Web hole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering

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