Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is a multifunctional protein centrally involved in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control, and viral transformation. The regulatory functions of Tax are thought to be mediated through protein-protein interaction with cellular cofactors. Previously we have identified several novel binding partners for Tax, including human mitotic checkpoint protein MAD1 (TXBP181), G-protein pathway suppressor GPS2 (TXBP31), and IκB kinase regulatory subunit IKK-γ. Here we described two additional Tax partners, TXBP151 and TXBP121. A closer examination of the sequences of eight independent cellular Tax-binding proteins identified by us and others revealed that all of them share a single characteristic, a highly structured coiled-coil domain. We also noted that Tax and the Tax-binding coiled-coil proteins can homodimerize. Additionally, the same domain in Tax is responsible for interaction with different coiled-coil proteins. Taken together, our findings point to a particular coiled-coil structure as one of the Tax-recognition motifs. The interaction of Tax with a particular subgroup of cellular coiled-coil proteins represents one mechanism by which Tax dysregulates cell growth and proliferation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases