Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part I: effects of wind and body movement on total insulation

Yehu Lu, Faming Wang, Xianfu Wan, Guowen Song, Wen Shi, Chengjiao Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


In this serial study, 486 thermal manikin tests were carried out to examine the effects of air velocity and walking speed on both total and local clothing thermal insulations. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., one, two, or three layers) were selected for the study. Three different wind speeds (0.15, 1.55, 4.0 m/s) and three levels of walking speed (0, 0.75, 1.2 m/s) were chosen. Thus, there are totally nine different testing conditions. The clothing total insulation and local clothing insulation at different body parts under those nine conditions were determined. In part I, empirical equations for estimating total resultant clothing insulation as a function of the static thermal insulation, relative air velocity, and walking speed were developed. In part II, the local thermal insulation of various garments was analyzed and correction equations on local resultant insulation for each body part were developed. This study provides critical database for potential applications in thermal comfort study, modeling of human thermal strain, and functional clothing design and engineering.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1475-1486
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Biometeorology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 26 Oct 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Air permeability
  • Local thermal insulation
  • Pumping effect
  • Resultant thermal insulation
  • Thermal manikin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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