Closed-loop supply chain network under Oligopolistic competition with multiproducts, uncertain demands, and returns

Yan Zhou, Chi Kin Chan, Kar Hung Wong, Y. C E Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


We develop an equilibrium model of a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network with multiproducts, uncertain demands, and returns. This model belongs to the context of oligopolistic firms that compete noncooperatively in a Cournot-Nash framework under a stochastic environment. To satisfy the demands, we use two different channels: manufacturing new products and remanufacturing returned products through recycling used components. Since both the demands and product returns are uncertain, we consider two types of risks: overstocking and understocking of multiproducts in the forward supply chain. Then we set up the Cournot-Nash equilibrium conditions of the CLSC network whereby we maximize every oligopolistic firm's expected profit by deciding the production quantities of each new product as well as the path flows of each product on the forward supply chain. Furthermore, we formulate the Cournot-Nash equilibrium conditions of the CLSC network as a variational inequality and prove the existence and the monotonicity of the variational inequality. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of our model.
Original languageEnglish
Article number912914
JournalMathematical Problems in Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematics(all)
  • Engineering(all)

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