Different schemes were experimentally investigated of the closed-loop control of vortex shedding from a spring-supported square cylinder in cross flow. The control action was implemented through the perturbation of one cylinder surface, which was generated by three piezoelectric ceramic actuators, embedded underneath the surface and controlled by a proportional-integral-derivative controller. Three control schemes were investigated using different feedback signals, including the turbulent flow signal measured by a hot wire, flow-induced structural oscillation signal obtained by a laser vibrometer, and a combination of both signals. An investigation was conducted at the resonance condition, when the vortex-shedding frequency coincided with the natural frequency of the fluid-structure system. The flow and structural vibration were measured using particle image velocimetry, laser-induced fluorescence flow visualization, a laser Doppler anemometer, and a laser vibrometer. It was observed that the control scheme based on the feedback of both flow and structural oscillation led to the almost complete destruction of the Kármá vortex street and a reduction in the structural vibration, vortex shedding strength, and drag coefficient by 82%, 65%, and 35%, respectively, outperforming by far an open-loop control as well as the other two closed-loop schemes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics