Closed-form underwater acoustic direction-finding with arbitrarily spaced vector hydrophones at unknown locations

Kainam Thomas Wong, Michael D. Zoltowski

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)


This paper introduces a novel ESPRIT-based closed-form source localization algorithm applicable to arbitrarily spaced three-dimensional arrays of vector hydrophones, whose locations need not be known. Each vector hydrophone consists of two or three identical but orthogonally oriented velocity hydrophones plus one pressure hydrophone, all spatially co-located in a point-like geometry. A velocity hydrophone measures one Cartesian component of the incident sonar wavefield's velocity-vector, whereas a pressure hydrophone measures the acoustic wavefield's pressure. Velocity-hydrophone technology is well established in underwater acoustics and a great variety of commercial models have long been available. ESPRIT is realized herein by exploiting the nonspatial inter-relations among each vector hydrophone's coastiluent hydrophones, such that ESPRIT's eigenvalues become independent of array geometry. Simulation results verify the efficacy and versatility of this innovative scheme. Aspects of this underwater acoustic algorithm are analogous to Li's earlier work with diversely polarized antennas.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-575
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Array signal processing
  • Direction of arrival estimation
  • Eigenvalues/eigenfunctions
  • Random arrays
  • Sonar arrays
  • Sonar tracking
  • Underwater acoustic arrays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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