Clinical Evaluation of Fiducial Marker Pre-Planning for Virtual Bronchoscopic Navigation Implantation in Lung Tumour Patients Treated With CyberKnife

Ki Man Ku, Bing Lam, Vincent W.C. Wu, Kwok Ting Chan, Chloe Y.Y. Chan, H. C. Cheng, Kamy M.Y. Yuen, Jing Cai

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Purpose: For the treatment of invisible lung tumours with CyberKnife (CK), fiducial markers (FMs) were implanted as an internal surrogate under virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN). This research aims to study the benefits of introducing an additional procedure in assigning the optimal FM positions using a pre-procedure planning system and performing virtual simulation before implantation. The objectives were 1) to reduce the duration of the FM implantation procedure, 2) to reduce the radiation exposure in dose area product (DAP) (dGy*cm2) to patients, and 3) to increase the number of FMs implanted around the tumour. Methods and Materials: This study is retrospective, single-centre, and observational in nature. A total of 32 patients were divided into two groups. In Group 1, 18 patients underwent conventional VBN FM implantation. In Group 2, 14 patients underwent additional pre-procedure planning and simulation. The steps of pre-procedure planning include 1) importing CT images into the treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems, Inc.) and delineating five to six FMs in their ideal virtual positions and 2) copying the FM configuration into VBN planning software (LungPoint Bronchus Medical, Inc.) for verification and simulation. Finally, the verified FMs were deployed through VBN with the guidance of the LungPoint planning software. Results: A total of 162 FMs were implanted among 35 lesions in 32 patients aged from 37 to 92 (median = 66; 16 men and 16 women). Results showed that 1) the average FM insertion time was shortened from 41 min (SD = 2.05) to 23 min (SD = 1.25), p = 0.00; 2) the average absorbed dose of patients in DAP was decreased from 67.4 cGy*cm2 (SD = 14.48) to 25.3 cGy*cm2 (SD = 3.82), p = 0.01 (1-tailed); and 3) the average number of FMs implanted around the tumour was increased from 4.7 (SD = 0.84) to 5.6 (SD = 0.76), p = 0.00 (1-tailed). Conclusion: Pre-procedure planning reduces the FM implantation duration from 41.1 to 22.9 min, reduces the radiation exposure in DAP from 67.4 to 25.3 dGy*cm2, and increases the number of FMs inserted around the tumour from 4.7 to 5.6.

Original languageEnglish
Article number860641
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2022


  • CyberKnife
  • dose area product
  • fiducial marker
  • lung cancer
  • virtual bronchoscopic navigation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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