Classification of transformable products based on changes in product form and function

Haebin Lee, Muhammad Tufail, Kwan Myung Kim

Research output: Journal article publicationConference articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The sentence "form follows function" is the best expression of the relationship between form and function of a product in modern product design. This implies that the form is essential to implement the function while it should be optimized and minimized for the function. Unlike general products, transformable products are designed with the intention to change the function and form of the product according to the situation. This paper presents the types and characteristics of transformable products determined by Phase Model we introduced. We collected 147 transformable product cases and analyzed them according to the change of functions and forms in each product. As a result, we classified the transformable products into four types: partial transformable product, multi-form product, multi-function product and full transformable product. We found that each type has unique characteristics with potential to drive innovation in product design field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)641-650
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of the Design Society
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes
Event23rd International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 2021 - Gothenburg, Sweden
Duration: 16 Aug 202120 Aug 2021


  • Design engineering
  • Design theory
  • Industrial design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Software
  • Modelling and Simulation


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