Chinese version of the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory

Wan Yim Ip, Dominic Chan, Wai Tong Chien

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Aim. This paper reports a study to translate the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory into Chinese and examine its reliability and validity among pregnant Chinese women in Hong Kong. Background. Self-efficacy for childbirth has been emerged as an important psychological construct in childbearing care. A reliable and valid self-efficacy measure for pregnant women is crucial to the understanding of their psychological preparation, as well as the development of an appropriate childbirth education programme. Methods. Two experienced midwives undertook translation of the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory into Chinese, and another two experienced midwives independently conducted back translation. An expert panel of six healthcare professionals and 10 pregnant women examined the face and content validity of the translated instrument. A convenience sample of 148 pregnant Chinese women of not < 36 weeks of gestation, and attending a regional teaching hospital in Hong Kong, were invited to complete the translated inventory and a demographic data sheet. Results. The Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory indicated high internal consistency. Principal components analysis supported the fact that each of the efficacy and outcome expectancy subscales is uni-dimensional. Neither scores in the efficacy nor outcome expectancy subscales suggested any statistically significant relationships with parity, age, education and attendance at childbirth education classes. No statistically significant differences in efficacy and outcome expectancy scores were found between the active phase (when contractions are not more than 5 minutes apart) and second stage (when pushing out the baby) of labour. Conclusion. The study provides initial support for the reliability and validity of the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory. Although its sensitivity in differentiating between the two stages of labour was not evident, the distinguishing role of its expectancy subscales has been identified.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)625-633
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Chinese
  • Maternity nursing
  • Reliability
  • Self-efficacy for childbirth
  • Translation
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


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