Chinese Translation and Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Workstyle Short Form

Shu Kei Cheng, Grace P.Y. Szeto, Yan Wen Xu, Michael Feuerstein

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction Workstyle as it is related to symptoms of musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper limbs is the behavioural, cognitive and physical responses that occur in individuals to increases in work demands. A self report measure of this construct was developed that was both associated with and predictive of work related upper extremity symptoms. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate a Chinese version of the Workstyle Short Form (C-WSF). Methods The C-WSF was translated following a forward and backward translation approach. Content validity was examined by item- and scale-level content validity indices. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze test–retest reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify factor structures and the internal consistency of these factors was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients. The construct validity of the C-WSF was first determined by convergence in relation to the Cumulative Symptoms Score for Upper Extremity symptoms and then by comparison of those with and without upper extremity pain in Chinese cooks, a work with a high level of exposures to varying levels of work demands coupled with exposure to workplace psychosocial and biomechanical stressors. Results The C-WSF demonstrated excellent item- and scale-level content validity index (>0.9). The factor structure of C-WSF was similar to its original English version. The internal consistency of different subscales of C-WSF ranged from 0.65 to 0.91. The ICC was between 0.79 and 0.93 indicating good test–retest reliability. C-WSF was significantly correlated with upper extremity symptoms (r = 0.34, p < 0.001). Conclusions C-WSF is a reliable and valid version of the Workstyle measures for use in Chinese population.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)605-616
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


  • Chinese cooks
  • Chinese translation
  • Self report measure
  • Validation
  • Work-related musculoskeletal upper extremity pain
  • Workstyle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Occupational Therapy

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