Charge Transfer and Ion Occupation Induced Ultra-Durable and All-Weather Energy Generation from Ambient Air for Over 200 Days

Jian Lu, Bingang Xu (Corresponding Author), Junxian Huang, Xinlong Liu, Hong Fu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


The notion of spontaneous and persistent energy generation from omnipresent atmospheric moisture presents an alluring prospect in the realm of next-generation energy sources. Here, an ultra-durable and all-weather energy generator (UAEG) predicated on interface-induced proton migration derived from enhanced proton dissociation by charge transfer and ion occupation is reported, which reduces the diffusion barrier of protons in chromatogram-like mass transfer by avoiding the rebinding of dissociated protons with charged polyelectrolyte chains, thus leading to efficient and continuous proton migration through heterogeneously hygroscopic interface and delivering ultra-durable direct-current output. Deep insight into underlying mechanisms is demonstrated by theoretical calculations and in situ investigations toward molecular interactions and charge distribution. A UAEG unit with 4 cm2 in size can generate an impressive electric output (0.88 V and 37.58 µA) across extensive relative humidity (10–90%) and ambient temperature (−30–50 ˚C), capable of generating energy in all-weather conditions (e.g., sunny, cloudy, overcast, and rainy) regardless of day and night. Importantly, it is the first time that a commercial electronic is continuously driven for over 200 days in all-weather conditions just depending on ambient moisture. This work provides a novel perspective for the development of ultra-durable and all-weather moisture-enabled energy generators.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • all-weather
  • energy generation
  • moist-electric generator
  • moisture-enabled electricity generation
  • ultra-durable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrochemistry


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