Characteristics and clinical correlates of prospective memory performance in first-episode schizophrenia

Fu Chun Zhou, Yu Tao Xiang, Chuan Yue Wang, Faith Dickerson, Raymond W.C. Au, Jing Jing Zhou, Yan Zhou, David H.K. Shum, Helen F.K. Chiu, Wai Kwong Man, Edwin H.M. Lee, Xin Yu, Raymond C.K. Chan, Gabor S. Ungvari

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The aim of this study was to examine prospective memory (PM) and its socio-demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive correlates in first episode schizophrenia (FES). Methods: Fifty-one FES patients and 42 healthy controls formed the study sample. Time- and event-based PM (TBPM and EBPM) performance were measured with the Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (C-CAMPROMPT). A battery of neuropsychological tests was also administered. Patients' clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). Results: Patients performed significantly worse in both TBPM (8.7. ±. 5.3 vs. 14.8. ±. 3.5) and EBPM (11.3. ±. 4.7 vs. 15.7. ±. 2.7) than the controls. After controlling for age, gender, education level and neurocognitive test score, the difference in performance on the two types of PM tasks between patients and controls was no longer present. In multiple linear regression analyses, longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), lower scores of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and the categories completed of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-CC) and higher score of the Color Trails Test-2 (CTT-2) contributed to poorer TBPM performance, while lower score of HVLT-R, higher score of the perseverative errors of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-PE) and longer DUP contributed to worse performance on EBPM. Conclusions: Both subtypes of PM are impaired in first-episode schizophrenia suggesting that PM deficits are an integral part of the cognitive dysfunction in the disease process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-39
Number of pages6
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2012


  • Cognitive functions
  • First-episode schizophrenia
  • Prospective memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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