The effect of bilingual experience on cognitive control has been intensively examined in the past two decades, but empirical studies have provided inconsistent findings about the presence of the so-called “bilingual advantage.” In light of recent controversies on this topic, we propose to consider the ecosystem of language experience (i.e., properties of the environment for learning and using a language) and the expertise of the language learner or user (e.g., linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities including nonverbal skills such as musicality) in resolving the controversies. The consideration of these two dimensions and the interaction between the two, is highly consistent with a dynamic perspective on bilingualism that has a broad base in cognitive and linguistic sciences. Future studies may benefit from this perspective, along with consideration of other factors, to better understand the developmental trajectories and the changing landscape of the bilingual's two languages in the mind and the brain.
|Name||Psychology of Learning and Motivation|
- Language experience
- Cognitive control
- Bilingual advantage
- Dynamic perspective