Chapter 4 - GNSS multipath errors and mitigation techniques

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingChapter in an edited book (as author)Academic researchpeer-review


Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is widely used for navigation and positioning in engineering and geoscience applications. Depending on the measurement types (pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements) and error/bias models used in data processing, GNSS can achieve meter to centimeter level or better positioning accuracy. Multipath is not modeled in GNSS data processing usually; it can lead to errors of few meters in pseudorange measurements and few centimeters in carrier-phase measurements. Therefore, multipath errors may limit the standard positioning service to few meters and high-precision positioning to few centimeters. This chapter describes the multipath error source, the characteristics in measurements, and the factors affecting the magnitude of multipath errors. Moreover, the state-of-the-art multipath mitigation methods are described and discussed. This chapter contains all you need to understand GNSS multipath errors and their characteristics and state-of-the-art hardware- and software-based multipath mitigation techniques.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGPS and GNSS Technology in Geosciences
EditorsGeorge p. Petropoulos, Prashant K. Srivastava
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)978-0-12-818617-6
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Multipath characteristics
  • Multipath effect
  • Multipath mitigation
  • Ray tracing
  • Reflected signals
  • Sidereal filters
  • Stochastic models


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