Neonates are relatively immature in their immune response; thus, to further clarify the differences of monocyte function and differentiation between neonates and adults, we investigated their CD14+CD4+and CD14+CD16+monocyte subpopulations, production of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α induced by lipopolysaccharide, and their CD14 and CD1a phenotypic changes in response to IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Our results showed that 1) the expression of CD14 in cord blood monocytes was significantly lower than that in adult peripheral blood monocytes; 2) both the percentages of CD14+CD4+cells and CD14+CD16+cells among CD14+monocytes were also significantly lower in cord blood; 3) after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide for 72 h, production of both IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was lower in cord blood than that in adult peripheral blood; and 4) in response to IL-4 or GM-CSF, the phenotype development of CD14 and CD1a in cord blood and adult peripheral blood was different. Down-regulation of CD14 expression in response to IL-4 and GM-CSF was slower in cord blood monocytes than that in adult peripheral blood monocytes. After 9 d of culture in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF, the percentage of CD1a+monocytes was significantly more increased in cord blood than that in adult peripheral blood. The reduced expression of CD14 and other mature phenotype markers such as CD16 and CD4 as well as the reduced IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α production may contribute to the impaired immune response of neonates. Slower down-regulation of CD14 by IL-4 and GM-CSF suggests that differential properties of cord blood monocytes in response to cellular stress signals take a longer time than those of adult peripheral blood monocytes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health