Causal attribution for interfirm contract violation: A comparative study of Chinese and American commercial arbitrators

Ray Friedman, Wu Liu, Chao C. Chen, Shu Cheng Steve Chi

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, the authors examined differences between Chinese and American commercial arbitrators. They predicted and found that Chinese arbitrators make higher awards for interfirm contract violations than Americans. This difference is partially explained by differences in attributions. Prior theory suggests, and the authors found, that the Chinese tend to have more internal attributions for events when observing group actions. When evidence provided to arbitrators is mixed (evidence is provided for both internal and external attributions), Chinese-American differences in awards become even stronger.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)856-864
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Ambiguity
  • Arbitration
  • Attribution
  • Chinese
  • Chinese-American differences
  • Culture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

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