Bulk-Forming Simulation of Bimetallic Watchcase Components

T. F. Kong, Luen Chow Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


This article presents a study of the effects of process parameters in bulk-forming bimetallic watchcase components using finite-element (FE) simulation. This study aimed to determine the suitable forming temperature T and ram speed S for attaining the complete die filling of bimetals. A complicated watchcase component made of 3-mm-thick AISI 316L stainless steel (SS316L) and 6-mm-thick 6063 aluminum alloy (AA6063) was used as the example. The processes were simulated with T of 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C, and 900°C and S of 20 mm/s, 40 mm/s, and 60 mm/s. Although the AA6063 was not heated in the beginning, it flowed faster than the SS316L during the process, and hence, the incomplete die filling was found mainly in the SS316L region. To avoid the incomplete die filling and strengthen the intermetallic bond between two dissimilar metals, the T of 900°C was suggested. The S of 40 mm/s was recommended also because this could save much forming energy and prevent the damage of tools. The experimental verification was carried out under process conditions that were employed in the simulations. An infrared thermal imaging camera and a 300-ton mechanical press were used to monitor the T and testify the bulk-forming operation, respectively. The data acquired from the experiments, on average, agreed strongly with those predicted by the simulations. On the basis of the results in this study, engineers can gain a better understanding of bulk-forming bimetallic components and be able to determine the T and S efficiently for similar processes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2145-2155
Number of pages11
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 4 Oct 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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