Buckling-driven piezoelectric defect-induced energy localization and harvesting using a Rubik’s cube-inspired phononic crystal structure

Dong Xing Cao, Sha Sha Li, Xiang Ying Guo, Xu Min Chen, Siu Kai Lai

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Wireless sensor networks that enable advanced internet of things (IoT) applications have experienced significant development. However, low-power electronics are limited by battery lifetime. Energy harvesting presents a solution for self-powered technologies. Vibration-based energy harvesting technology is one of the effective approaches to convert ambient mechanical energy into electrical energy. Various dynamic oscillating systems have been proposed to investigate the effectiveness of energizing low-power electronic sensor devices for supporting various IoT applications across engineering disciplines. Phononic crystal structures have been implemented in vibrational energy harvesters due to their unique bandgap and wave propagation properties. This work proposes a Rubik’s cube-inspired defective-state locally resonant three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal with a 5 × 5 × 5 perfect supercell that contains 3D piezoelectric energy harvesting units. The advantage of defect-induced energy localization is utilized to harness vibrational energy. The 3D piezoelectric energy harvesting units are constructed by the buckling-driven assembling principle. Adapting to the low-frequency and broadband characteristics of ambient vibration sources, soft silicone gel is used to encapsulate the buckled 3D piezoelectric units, which are embedded in the 3D cubic phononic crystal to assemble an entire system. The energy harvesting performance of various defective layouts and their defect modes is discussed. The results demonstrate that the harvester functions well under multidirectional, multimodal, and low-frequency conditions. The proposed methodology also offers a new perspective on vibrational energy harvesters for defective phononic crystals with superior working performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number035036
JournalSmart Materials and Structures
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • buckling-driven assembling
  • defective phononic crystals
  • energy harvesting
  • multidirectional conditions
  • soft encapsulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Buckling-driven piezoelectric defect-induced energy localization and harvesting using a Rubik’s cube-inspired phononic crystal structure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this