Brand-as-Person versus Brand-as-User: An Anthropomorphic Issue in Tourism-related Self-Congruity Studies

Philipp Wassler, Kam Hung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Tourism self-congruity studies use two facets to personify destinations, namely, brand-as-person and brand-as-user. These features have been considered synonymous in previous research, and thus the differences between these facets, which may demonstrate biased congruity, must be investigated. This study uses projective techniques to personify brand-as-person and brand-as-user for two tourist destinations. Both facets are distinct and must not be used interchangeably in tourism-related self-congruity studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)839-859
Number of pages21
JournalAsia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • destination branding
  • destination marketing
  • destination personality
  • self-congruity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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