Bonghan Ducts as Possible Pathways for Cancer Metastasis

Jung Sun Yoo, Hong Bae Kim, Vyacheslav Ogay, Byung Cheon Lee, Saeyoung Ahn, Kwang Sup Soh

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The present study has been designed to find a possible new route for the metastasis of cancer cells on the fascia surrounding tumor tissue using a novel technique of trypan blue staining. Materials and Methods: Tumor tissues were grown in the skin of nude mice after sub-cutaneous inoculation with human lung cancer cells. Trypan blue was recently identified as a dye with specificity for Bonghan ducts (BHDs) and not other tissues, such as blood or lymph vessels or nerves. Results: We demonstrate that the trypan blue staining technique allows the first visualization of BHDs which are connected to tumor tissues. Conclusion: Since BHDs are known to make up a circulatory system corresponding to acu puncture meridians or collaterals, we propose that, in addition to the currently known blood or lymph vessels, BHDs on tumor tissue fascia may be a novel pathway for metastasis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-123
Number of pages6
JournalJAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Bonghan duct
  • cancer
  • metastasis
  • trypan blue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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