Bolstering Measures for Combating the Challenges of Safe Working Cycle Implementation in Hong Kong’s Construction Industry

Daniel W.M. Chan, Douglas O. Aghimien

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


To heighten the safety performance of construction projects, multitudinous safety initiatives or measures have been promulgated in Hong Kong over the past three decades. These initiatives have led to the drastic reduction in construction site accidents. However, implementing these safety initiatives, such as the Safe Working Cycle (SWC), does not go without facing challenges. This paper illustrates the survey findings from an evaluation of the challenges encountered with the execution of SWC in construction projects in Hong Kong and proffers possible bolstering improvement measures for its successful implementation. The study was quantitative in nature and data were gathered from construction participants involved in projects adopting SWC. The data gathered were analysed using diverse descriptive, inferential and first-generation multivariate analyses. The study findings revealed that the effective implementation of SWC is still deterred by several major challenges that can be grouped into: (1) tight project schedule and limited site space; and (2) lack of promotions and support for SWC implementation. To address these profound challenges, the study recommended some essential improvement measures including: (1) adequate budget allocation and reasonable project schedule; (2) establishment of a reward system towards construction workers; and (3) development of a tailor-made SWC system for each specific construction site. The study has provided useful guidelines and insightful recommendations for both the client organisations and construction firms and their site management staff in developing their site safety policies and adopting SWC for improving the existing site safety performance of various construction projects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3772
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • construction industry
  • health and safety
  • Hong Kong
  • safe working cycle (SWC)
  • site safety cycle
  • site safety perfor-mance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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