Bluetooth vehicle trajectory by fusing bluetooth and loops: Motorway travel time statistics

A. Bhaskar, M. Qu, Edward Chin Shin Chung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


© 2000-2011 IEEE.Loop detectors are widely used on the motorway networks where they provide point speed and traffic volumes. Models have been proposed for temporal and spatial generalization of speed for average travel time estimation. Advancement in technology provides complementary data sources such as Bluetooth Media Access Control (MAC) Scanner (BMS), detecting the MAC ID of the Bluetooth devices transported by the traveler. Matching the data from two BMS stations provides individual vehicle travel time. Generally, on the motorways, loops are closely spaced, whereas BMSs are placed a few kilometers apart. In this paper, we fuse BMSs and loops data to define the trajectories of the Bluetooth vehicles. The trajectories are utilized to estimate the travel time statistics between any two points along the motorway. The proposed model is tested using simulation and validated with real data from Pacific Motorway, Brisbane. Comparing the model with the linear-interpolation-based trajectory provides significant improvements.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6841057
Pages (from-to)113-122
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Bluetooth
  • data fusion
  • loops
  • Media Access Control (MAC) reader
  • trajectory
  • Travel time statistics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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