Biomechanics of first ray hypermobility: An investigation on joint force during walking using finite element analysis

Duo Wai Chi Wong, Ming Zhang, Jia Yu, Kam Lun Leung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Hypermobility of the first ray is suggested to contribute to hallux valgus. The investigation of first ray hypermobility focused on the mobility and range of motion that based on manual examination. The load transfer mechanism of the first ray is important to understand the development and pathomechanism of hallux valgus. In this study, we investigated the immediate effect of the joint hypermobility on the metatarsocuneiform and metatarsophalangeal joint loading through a reduction of the stiffness of the foot ligaments. A three-dimensional foot model was constructed from a female aged 28 via MRI. All foot and ankle bones, including two sesamoids and the encapsulated bulk tissue were modeled as 3D solid parts, linking with ligaments of shell elements and muscles connectors. The stance phase of walking was simulated by the boundary and loading conditions obtained from gait analysis of the same subject.Compared with the normal foot, the hypermobile foot had higher resultant metatarsocuneiform and metatarsophalangeal joint forces. The increases accounted for 18.6% and 3.9% body weight. There was also an abrupt change of metatarsocuneiform joint force in the medial-lateral direction. The predicted results represented possible risk of joint problems and metatarsus primus varus.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1388-1393
Number of pages6
JournalMedical Engineering and Physics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Hallux valgus
  • Ligament laxity
  • Metatarsus primus varus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering

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