Bi-level control scheme for vehicle-to-grid regulation services

Shuang Gao, K. T. Chau, C. C. Chan, Chunhua Liu

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic researchpeer-review


This paper presents a control scheme of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation for the distribution power grid which integrates renewable generation units. An optimal control algorithm is developed to minimize the total operating cost. The potential for providing frequency regulation when the vehicles are idle is also analyzed. The power output of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is regulated to redistribute the PHEV charging energy and meanwhile provide the grid services. The regulation of PHEV charging load can consume the excessive power from wind generation units during the off-peak time. And with the frequency regulation, the power fluctuation of wind generator can be compensated and therefore stabilize the voltage and frequency. Finally, simulation results verify that the optimal control of V2G power can reduce total operating cost and enhance the voltage stability. Furthermore, the regulation capacity of V2G used for frequency regulation can improve the power quality and facilitate the integration of wind power generators.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication26th Electric Vehicle Symposium 2012, EVS 2012
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - May 2012
Externally publishedYes
Event26th Electric Vehicle Symposium 2012, EVS 2012 - Los Angeles, CA, United States
Duration: 6 May 20129 May 2012

Publication series

Name26th Electric Vehicle Symposium 2012, EVS 2012


Conference26th Electric Vehicle Symposium 2012, EVS 2012
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityLos Angeles, CA


  • Electric vehicles
  • Frequency regulation
  • Operating cost minimization
  • Renewable generation
  • V2G

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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