Beyond sonication: Advanced exfoliation methods for scalable production of 2D materials

Weiran Zheng, Lawrence Yoon Suk Lee (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Emerging two-dimensional (2D) materials, represented by graphene, have been exhibiting superiority over conventional bulk counterparts in various fields, from electronics to catalysis. Scalable production of these 2D materials is urgently desired in order to use their advantages in real life. However, the widely adopted sonication method cannot meet this need. We first review the scalability of the production methods of 2D materials from the point of the quality-quantity trade-off in different applications. Then, we discuss the principles, recent progress made, and the pros and cons of the available laboratory exfoliation methods beyond sonication: mechanical, hydrothermal, electrochemical, laser-assisted, and microwave-assisted exfoliation. Finally, we provide a comprehensive analysis of their scalability in six aspects—production rate, exfoliation yield, quality uniformity, reproducibility, cost, and tunability—aiming to bridge the gap between academia and industry for 2D materials production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-545
Number of pages31
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2022


  • 2D material
  • electrochemical exfoliation
  • exfoliation
  • hydrothermal exfoliation
  • laser-assisted exfoliation
  • mechanical exfoliation
  • microwave-assisted exfoliation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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